Introduction

A large percentage of public money is spent on procurement to buy goods and services for public projects amounting to an estimated average of US$9.5 trillion every year[1]. In OECD countries, public procurement makes up for between 19 and 45 per cent (OECD average 29 per cent) of total government expenditures[2]. With such vast amounts of money at stake, public procurement arguably poses the greatest risk for corruption in PFM. The size, the number and complexity of the transactions involved, combined with the high level of discretion of procurement officials, provide many incentives and opportunities for corruption. It is estimated that on average 10 to 25 per cent of a public contract’s value may be lost to corruption[3]

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