U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from a U4 Partner Agency. The U4 Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International in collaboration with the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre based at the Chr. Michelsen Institute.


Could you provide an overview of existing analysis and reports on corruption in the education sector in Rwanda?


To guide the framework of Fiduciary Risk assessment for budget support operations.


1. Major corruption trends in Rwanda
2. Information on corruption in the education sector
3. Overview of anti-corruption efforts in Rwanda


In view of the very few sources of information publicly accessible on corruption in the Rwandan education sector, it was agreed with the enquirer to provide sources of information on corruption in Rwanda more generally.


The sources consulted in this report suggest that remarkable progress has been made in terms of anti-corruption since the 1994 genocide. Rwanda has gone through a painful process of reconstruction, including rebuilding the whole governance systems, structures and institutions. A number of institutions are now in place with the objective of fighting corruption. These include the Rwanda Public Procurement Authority, the Office of the Ombudsman, the Rwanda National Police, the National Prosecutor General Authority, the Auditor General and the Rwanda Revenue Authority. These efforts seem to have yielded results, with the country performing better than many other African countries in terms of control of corruption on most governance indicators.

In spite of these efforts, there are a number of areas in which corruption still needs to be addressed. There have been instances of tax and public funds embezzlement, fraudulent procurement practices and judicial corruption. A number of high ranking officials have been alleged to be involved in corrupt practices, although many of these have now stood down or been taken to court. This includes the former State Minister of Primary and Secondary Education. Some reports voice concerns regarding current measures being taken by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) which could compromise the effectiveness of governance institutions.


Marie Chêne, Transparency International, [email protected] and Catherine Mann, Transparency International, [email protected]


Robin Hodess, Ph.D., Transparency International, [email protected]




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