Country and policy studies

OECD. 2017. OECD Reviews of Integrity in Education: Ukraine 2017. Paris: OECD Publishing.  

This review examines the integrity violations in the Ukrainian education system. These include: preferential access to (pre-)schools through favours or bribes, misappropriation of parental contributions to schools, private paid supplementary tutoring by classroom teachers, corrupt access to higher education, among others. The report identifies how policy shortcomings create incentives for misconduct and provide opportunities for corrupt acts for educators and students. The report closes with recommendations to address these problems and strengthen public trust in a merit-based education system.  

Open Society Foundation Armenia. 2015. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Armenia. P. 47.  

This integrity assessment was commissioned by the Open Society Foundation to address integrity issues in the education sector. The report consolidates a list of integrity violations, which require immediate attention; identifies education policy areas which should be improved to help effectively prevent such violations; and gives a detailed roadmap for improvements in these policy areas.  

Mihaylo Milovanovitch. 2014. Trust and Institutional Corruption: The Case of Education in Tunisia. Edmond J. Safra Working Papers, No. 44.  

The education sector in Tunisia has been particularly affected by corruption. The integrity scan of Tunisian education presented in the working paper applies a proprietary methodology to identify shortcomings in areas of key importance for effective institutional operation and stakeholder trust, such as staff and resource management, quality of education and access to education. It then provides evidence that can guide the closure of integrity gaps. The paper lists options for follow-up to restore trust in the system, and suggests a wide public discussion on steps to be undertaken with the goal of making a pact among all concerned for a strong and fair Tunisian education system.  

Mihaylo Milovanovitch. 2013. Fighting Corruption in Education: A Call for Sector Integrity Standards. In Cissé, Hassane, N. R. Madhava Menon, Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger, and Vincent O. Nmehielle, eds. 2014. The World Bank Legal Review, Vol 5. Fostering Development through Opportunity, Inclusion, and Equity  

The article argues in favour of mobilising new insights from education research and anti-corruption policy for the development of sector standards of integral behaviour. It discusses a systemic service-based approach around which this could be done, and the responsibility of education practitioners and policy makers in the endeavour. It also suggests that measures to prevent corruption in education should be more sector-specific and target not only criminal offences, but also “softer” yet equally harmful forms of malpractice.  

OECD. 2012. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia. Paris: OECD Publishing.  

The research for this report was conducted at the request of the government of Serbia. The report assesses corruption in the education sector, existing reforms and programmes and gives policy recommendations. The assessment contained a review of Serbian and international documents, including legislation and documents about the workings of the Serbian education system, requests for information to the government about key areas of the education system, as well as site visits and interviews. The report includes detailed analysis and recommendations for enhancing the sector for anti-corruption mechanisms and policies.  

Muriel Poisson. 2010. Corruption and Education. UNESCO.  

This booklet provides an overview of corruption challenges in the education sector and suggests how to improve transparency and accountability in educational planning and management, covering areas such as financing, public procurement, teacher management and examinations. It identifies specific challenges facing the education sector, including the decentralisation of educational funding and management, the growing competition among students and schools, and the boom in new technologies. The study reviews several tools to assess corrupt practices within the education sector, such as public expenditure tracking surveys, quantitative service delivery surveys and report cards. It argues that addressing corruption challenges in the education sector requires concerted action on three main fronts: developing transparent regulation systems and standards; building management capacity; and promoting greater ownership of administrative and financial processes. Anti-corruption efforts can also involve adopting codes of conduct, strengthening institutional capacities in some key areas, including management, accounting and auditing, promoting the right to information of users and, more broadly, displaying strong political will at all levels of the system.  

World Bank. 2010. Silent and Lethal: How Quiet Corruption Affects Africa’s Development Efforts.  

The 2010 Africa Development Indicators essay sheds light on a different type of corruption, referred to by the authors as “quiet corruption”, by which they mean instances where public servants fail to deliver services or inputs that have been paid for by the government. Examples of such forms of corruption include teachers’ absenteeism in public schools and absentee doctors in primary clinics. The report looks at the impact of such forms of corruption in the long term on the well-being and education levels of citizens, including direct consequences such as the reduced productivity potential of households, firms and farms, and the indirect consequences, such as distrust of public institutions’ frontline providers. Tackling quiet corruption is posited to require a combination of strong and committed leadership, policies and institutions at the sectoral level, and – most importantly – increased accountability and participation by citizens, the demand side of good governance.  

Georgy Petrov and Paul Temple. 2004. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union. Higher Education Management and Policy, Vol. 16/1.  

The paper uses data on higher education in Russia and Azerbaijan to analyse how corruption is spread in higher education. The authors suggest that differences in higher education corruption in these two countries are linked to social capital theory and solutions require a broader approach and not only technical means.


Iñaki Albisu Ardigó; Marie Chêne


Matthew Jenkins

Contributing experts:

Umrbek Allakulov (Water Integrity Network)

Shaazka Beyerle (US Institute of Peace)

Simone Bloem (Center for Applied Policy)

Claire Grandadam (Water Integrity Network)

Jacques Hallak (Jules Verne University – Amiens)

Mihaylo Milovanovitch (Centre For Applied Policy)

Muriel Poisson (International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP-UNESCO)

Juanita Riano (Inter-American Development Bank)

Marc Y. Tassé (Canadian Centre of Excellence for Anti-Corruption)

Vítězslav Titl (University of Siegen)

Davide Torsello (Central European University Business School)

Patty Zakaria (Royal Roads University)



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