Resources from the Anti-Corruption Helpdesk

State Capture: An Overview. Martini, M., 2014. Anti-Corruption Helpdesk Answer, Transparency International.

This answer provides an overview of the main issues related to state capture and the types of reforms necessary to address it. It briefly discusses the concept and the difficulties it poses in terms of empirical measurement, as well as summarising selected cases of state capture. Particular focus is given to the measures necessary to address the phenomenon, including various practical ways of enhancing the accountability of political leaders and of ensuring a competitive private sector.

Legislative footprint. Martini, M., 2013. Anti-Corruption Helpdesk Answer, Transparency International.

This Helpdesk answer discusses legislative footprints, which are documents that detail the time, person and subject of a legislator’s contact with a stakeholder. Published as an annex to legislative reports, it could potentially provide insight into who gave input into draft legislation. It helps to ensure that interest groups’ influence on policy-making is not disproportionate, which could, otherwise, lead to undue influence and state capture. Legislative footprints still play only a small role in the discussion about lobbying and transparency, and they are not obligatory in any of the countries examined.

Influence of interest groups on policy-making. Martini, M., 2012. Anti-Corruption Helpdesk Answer, Transparency International.  

This answer provides examples on measures taken by East and South-East Asian countries to increase transparency and accountability and avoid undue influence and other forms of corruption as well as best practice examples on regulating lobbying, focusing on the United States, Canada, and the European Union. The answer also discusses the benefits and risks of interest influence on policy making. While it is considered a key element of the decision-making process, if disproportionate and opaque it may lead to administrative corruption, undue influence and state capture.  

Best practices in regulation of lobbying activities. Ninua, T., 2012. Anti-Corruption Helpdesk Answer, Transparency International.

Regulation of lobbying is a relatively new global practice, and in many places legislation is either non-existent or lags behind the growing industry of lobbying. This Helpdesk answer offers several examples of effective frameworks for regulating lobbying activities. Any effective framework should ensure comprehensive coverage of the lobbying community through broad but clear definitions of lobbyists and their activities, with a mandatory disclosure regime that allows the public to have comprehensive knowledge regarding who finances what lobbying activities as well as the financial price of those activities. Lobbying regulation should be accompanied by broader measures aimed at transparency and accountability in the public sector, including prevention of conflicts of interest and robust asset declaration systems.

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