Transparency International

This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from one of Transparency International’s national chapters. The Anti-Corruption Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International and funded by the European Union


Can you provide an overview of countries’ experiences in public consultations at the national level before debating laws in parliament? Can you also provide examples of countries that have adopted legislation allowing citizens to submit petitions to their parliaments?


  1. Public consultations in lawmaking processes
  2. Examples of legislation for submitting petitions to parliaments
  3. References
  4. Appendix: comparative tables on public consultations


There is a broad consensus that the public should be involved at all stages of the lawmaking process for laws and policies affecting them. Public consultations are a form of public participation where the government invites citizens to provide feedback and express opinions on a specific law or policy. Such consultations can take different forms, and a number of key issues need to be considered, including types of documents regulating public consultations, who should be consulted, types of documents open for consultation, when to involve and the timeline to receive contributions from the public, tools for consultation, and so on.Petitions can also be used by governments (formal petitions) and civil society (informal petitions outside the realm of public authority) to consult the public or secure support for proposed legislations.


Marie Chêne, Transparency International, [email protected]




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