U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from a U4 Partner Agency. The U4 Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International in collaboration with the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre based at the Chr. Michelsen Institute.


Please provide an overview of corruption and anti-corruption efforts in the Philippines.

The election of Ferdinand Marcos Jr, nicknamed “Bongbong”, as the President of the Philippines in May 2022 has sustained fears of state capture by oligarchic family clans, widespread grand corruption and human rights abuses, all of which marred the rule of his father, Ferdinand Marcos Sr., the country’s former dictator who ruled from 1965 until 1986. Those fears appear to have been substantiated by continued extrajudicial killings, arrests of communist-linked leaders and activists, as well as the Marcos families’ unpaid taxes and damages to U.S. courts from human rights cases, leading to fears that this means further entrenchment of impunity.


  1. Background
  2. Extent of corruption
  3. Forms of corruption
    1. Grand corruption
    2. Political corruption
    3. Bribery
    4. Strategic corruption
  4. Main sectors affected by corruption
    1. Judiciary and law enforcement
    2. Healthcare
    3. Natural resources
  5. Other stakeholders
    1. Civil society
    2. Media
    3. Business community
    4. Faith-based organisations
    5. Academia
  6. References


Lasha Gogidze

[email protected]


Sheila Coronel (Columbia Journalism School)

Aled Williams (U4)

Matthew Jenkins and Caitlin Maslen (TI)




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