Standards and guidelines

World Medical Association's International Code of Medical Ethics.  

The International Code of Medical Ethics, first adopted in 1949 and last amended in 2006, establishes a code to which all medical physicians should adhere. The code is meant to complement and guide existing national medical codes. The code gives three specific nods to healthcare sector integrity namely: i) physicians shall not allow their judgement to be influenced by personal profit or unfair discrimination; ii) physicians shall deal honestly with patients and colleagues, and report to the appropriate authorities those physicians who practice unethically or incompetently or who engage in fraud or deception; and iii) a physician shall not receive any financial benefits or other incentives solely for referring patients or prescribing specific products.  

European Association Medical Devices of Notified Bodies (TEAM NB) Code of Conduct.  

This code of conduct is directed at medical equipment manufacturers and health procurement officials and aims to provide an ethical framework to follow when contracting or buying medical equipment. Among its central policies is the use of a common certification system to grade quality.  

World Health Organisation. 2014. Good Governance for Medicines Model Framework.  

The model framework for good governance for medicines is intended to be a guideline and can be adapted by each country according to its needs. It includes the basic components required by the Good Governance for Medicines programme and steps necessary to achieve these. This framework is comprised of two major complementary strategies: i) a value base strategy that includes the definition of key ethical principles, a code of conduct, the “socialisation” of the key ethical principles and the promotion of ethical leadership; and ii) a discipline-based strategy covering enforcement of existing anti-corruption legislation, mechanisms for whistleblowing, sanctions on reprehensible acts, transparent and accountable regulations and administrative procedure, collaboration among anti-corruption and transparency initiatives and management, coordination and evaluation. The first edition was published in 2008 and is revised annually by experts and country representatives. The framework was updated in 2014.


Iñaki Albisu Ardigó; Marie Chêne


Matthew Jenkins

Contributing experts:

Umrbek Allakulov (Water Integrity Network)

Shaazka Beyerle (US Institute of Peace)

Simone Bloem (Center for Applied Policy)

Claire Grandadam (Water Integrity Network)

Jacques Hallak (Jules Verne University – Amiens)

Mihaylo Milovanovitch (Centre For Applied Policy)

Muriel Poisson (International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP-UNESCO)

Juanita Riano (Inter-American Development Bank)

Marc Y. Tassé (Canadian Centre of Excellence for Anti-Corruption)

Vítězslav Titl (University of Siegen)

Davide Torsello (Central European University Business School)

Patty Zakaria (Royal Roads University)



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