Practical insights: handbooks and toolkits

Sujata Chaturvedi. 2014. Combating Corruption in Healthcare Organisations: Methods, Tools, and Good Practices. Medicine and Society 1 No. 2.;year=2014;volume=1;issue=2;spage=150;epage=153;aulast=Chaturvedi  

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the different anti-corruption tools available for health management professionals, primarily focused on: procurement processes; so-called “speed money”; theft, pilferage and malpractices; and staff recruitment. The article details a methodology of how to choose and implement different tools, as well as a taxonomy of available tools and practices. Tools that can be used to address corruption in hospital procurement include: a two-bid system of technical and price bid; demanding users' lists, demonstration, or onsite visits to ensure equipment meets the required standard; transparency initiatives; and participation of users and anti-corruption networks. Risks of informal payments or speed money can be addressed by encouraging and facilitating users' feedback, involving hospital neighbourhoods in anti-corruption efforts and introducing video surveillance in key areas. Administrative vigilance and strict handling of the instances of theft, pilferage and malpractice are argued to serve as a deterrent. Having a labour law professional or a trustworthy NGO on recruitment panels is posited as one way of reducing corruption in recruitment, especially in the case of contractual jobs.  

Taryn Vian. 2013. Complaints Mechanisms in Health Organisations. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute (U4 Brief 2013:6) 4 p.  

Complaints mechanisms have been promoted as a strategy to increase transparency and accountability, providing channels for organisations to respond to individual suspicions of corruption and other grievances. This U4 Brief discusses two cases of successful complaints mechanisms, one in India and the other in the United States. These cases suggest that complaints mechanisms should be reinforced by political and judicial systems that support investigation and prosecution. A focus on individual level grievances should be balanced with institutional reforms that address any management and accountability problems that complaints may uncover.

Taryn Vian & Laura Sabin. 2012. Per Diem Policy Analysis Toolkit. U4 Issue 2012:8. 

Most organisations use per diems to reimburse out-of-pocket expenses for travel and to encourage staff to attend professional development activities. However, weaknesses in policy design and control of spending can cause problems, including distortions of human resource systems, fraud and abuse by staff. Governments and NGOs need to adopt and implement fair, transparent and efficient policies which provide adequate compensation for work-related travel without creating adverse incentives.  

This toolkit proposes a methodology to study per diem policies of the health sector in a given country, whether in government, international or non-governmental organisations. It presents tools designed to describe and analyse the different types of per diems, policy characteristics and control systems, per diem spending, and attitudes and perceptions of staff as a means for identifying corruption risks.  

Karen Hussman. 2011. Addressing Corruption in the Health Sector: Securing Equitable Access to Healthcare for Everyone. U4 Brief.  

The development community is striving to achieve results and value for money with its investments in health around the world. Yet, donors often work in countries where the risk of corruption is high and where public management and oversight systems are weak. In many countries, international assistance has strengthened accountability bodies, such as anti-corruption commissions and the office of the auditor general. This U4 Issue aims to increase awareness of corruption in the health sector and provide practical guidance on how to identify and prevent it by: i) explaining the different forms corruption can take in the health sector; ii) identifying vulnerabilities to corruption and mitigating strategies; iii) presenting instruments to identify and track corruption in health; and iv) suggesting ways to integrate anti-corruption approaches into health sector programmes.  

UNDP. 2011. Fighting Corruption in the Health Sector: Tools, Methods and Good Practices.  

This publication presents methods, tools and good practices to map corruption risks, develop strategies and sustain partnerships to address challenges and tackle corruption in the health sector. This report considers several quantitative and qualitative studies that analyse and present evidence of the negative impact of corruption on health outcomes. The study reviews existing literature and discusses methods, tools and good practices on how to address corruption at various levels in the health sector. Finally, it presents concrete evidence for building multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with direct beneficiaries of the public health sector, to promote accountability and improve service delivery.  

Taryn Vian. 2009. Approaches to Teaching and Learning About Corruption in the Health Sector. U4 Brief 2009:30.  

This U4 Brief highlights how training and education programmes which deal with the topic of corruption and health can help change the way people approach their jobs as public administrators or development agency workers, and increase transparency and accountability. It summarises experiences and approaches to educating new and experienced public health professionals and donor agency practitioners about how to analyse problems of corruption in the health sector and design strategies to address them. Lessons learned are drawn from educational programmes which have already been developed, including a graduate‑level course for in public health masters students, and professional workshops aimed at development agency staff and government officials in several countries.


Iñaki Albisu Ardigó; Marie Chêne


Matthew Jenkins

Contributing experts:

Umrbek Allakulov (Water Integrity Network)

Shaazka Beyerle (US Institute of Peace)

Simone Bloem (Center for Applied Policy)

Claire Grandadam (Water Integrity Network)

Jacques Hallak (Jules Verne University – Amiens)

Mihaylo Milovanovitch (Centre For Applied Policy)

Muriel Poisson (International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP-UNESCO)

Juanita Riano (Inter-American Development Bank)

Marc Y. Tassé (Canadian Centre of Excellence for Anti-Corruption)

Vítězslav Titl (University of Siegen)

Davide Torsello (Central European University Business School)

Patty Zakaria (Royal Roads University)



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