This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from a U4 Partner Agency. The U4 Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International in collaboration with the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre based at the Chr. Michelsen Institute.
Could you please provide an overview of the nature and impact of corruption in Sudan? Does it affect SMEs significantly? Do foreign investors incur additional costs? Are basic services impacted by large diversions?
The agency is currently undertaking a piece of work to design our response to corruption in the new (post-secession) Sudan.
1. Overview of corruption in Sudan
2. Anti-corruption efforts in Sudan
There is little data and research available on the country’s state of governance and on corruption, particularly on its impact. The majority of recent studies have focused on the challenges faced by South Sudan, so are not helpful in looking at Sudan.
After decades of political turmoil, unrest, and civil war, Sudan faces many of the governance and corruption challenges that affect both conflict torn and resource rich countries, including fragile state institutions, low administrative capacity, weak systems of checks and balance, and blurred distinctions between the state and ruling party. The secession of South Sudan in July 2011 brings new economic and political challenges.
Corruption permeates all sectors, and manifests itself through various forms, including petty and grand corruption, embezzlement of public funds, and a system of political patronage well entrenched within the fabrics of society. Evidence of the impact of corruption is scarce and concealed by the country’s economic and political instability. Nevertheless, there is evidence that patronage has a negative impact on small and medium sized enterprises. Also, corruption in the police and security forces undermines internal security and allows abuses of civil and political rights. The lack of transparency in the oil sector contributes to political instability between Northern and Southern Sudan in the middle and long term.
Maira Martini, Transparency International, firstname.lastname@example.org