U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre

This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from a U4 Partner Agency. The U4 Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International in collaboration with the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre based at the Chr. Michelsen Institute.

Query

Please provide an overview of the current situation regarding corruption and anti-corruption in Sudan

Summary

Sudan is a fragile state, emerging from the brutal dictatorship of Omar al-Bashir, which ended in April 2019 after he was ousted by a military coup following prolonged popular protests. The new administration has inherited a deplorable governance situation. Moulded by years of kleptocratic rule, the civil service is plagued by rampant graft, while the extractive industries sector and land management are similarly rife with corruption. In fact, much of the national economy is exposed to extensive rent-seeking by the security forces, which run large swaths of the country as personal fiefdoms.

The new regime will be forced to address corruption at all levels and sectors of the country and will need to reinforce a legal and institutional anti-corruption framework that is largely failing to prevent, investigate or sanction corruption.

Contents

  1. Overview of corruption in Sudan
  2. Corruption by sector
  3. Legal and institutional anti-corruption framework
  4. References

Main points

  • After 30 years of authoritarian rule, Omar al-Bashir was deposed in 2019 and a new transitional government was established between civilians and the military.
  • Sudan under al-Bashir was considered to be a kleptocracy, in which corrupt actors had effectively captured all aspects of policymaking and all areas of the public service as well as the judiciary. The military was a prime beneficiary of the regime and continues to act autonomously with minimal civilian oversight.
  • The extractives industry presents a particular governance challenge in Sudan, as rent seeking reduces tax revenues and finances illicit activities.
  • Anti-corruption efforts have historically been lax, with existing laws being inadequately implemented.

Authors

Iñaki Albisu Ardigo, tihelpdesk@transparency.org

Reviewer

Matthew Jenkins, tihelpdesk@transparency.org

Date

12/10/2020

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