Please provide an overview of the nature and impact of corruption in Sudan including extent, nature, sectors most affected (extractive industries, public financial management, police and security), anti-corruption efforts, and legal and institutional framework (including judiciary). We are also interested in the following areas: public administration at national, regional and local levels, health, agriculture, natural resources and the environment.
Overview of corruption in Sudan
Corruption by sector
Legal and institutional anti-corruption frameworks
Anti-Corruption entry points for highly corrupt environments
Due to a lack of information, not all the sectors requested by the enquirer could be included in the answer. Providing policy advice is beyond the scope of the Helpdesk, for that reason, the last section of this document simply summarizes scholarly advice on how to fight corruption in developing countries and fragile states.
Sudan is, without a doubt, one of the most challenging environments for anti-corruption in the world. Corruption is present in all sectors and across all branches and levels of government: public servants are known to demand bribes for services that individuals or companies are legally entitled to; government officials hold direct and indirect stakes in many enterprises, which distorts the market through patronage and cronyism; and the head of state and government is believed to have embezzled up to US$9 billion from oil revenues.
This U4 Expert Answer provides a general overview of the nature and extent of corruption in the country, the state of its legal and institutional framework to prevent it, as well as its presence across different sectors of the economy.
Roberto Martinez B. Kukutschka, Transparency International, firstname.lastname@example.org