Transparency International

This Anti-Corruption Helpdesk brief was produced in response to a query from one of Transparency International’s national chapters. The Anti-Corruption Helpdesk is operated by Transparency International and funded by the European Union


We are developing a national integrity index, based on a set of 35 to 40 indicators, to assess and rank local authorities. We need to find information on corruption in planning and zoning at the local level. This is a high-risk area in our country, but more information is required in terms of best practices to prevent corruption.


  1. Corruption challenges in planning and zoning at the local level
  2. Drivers of corruption in planning and zoning
  3. Good practices in preventing corruption
  4. References


Corruption, and bribery in particular, is widely reported in the land-use market and construction industry, both of which are, in theory at least, subject to local authorities’ planning and zoning schemes. As such, the planning and zoning process is acutely vulnerable to corrupt behaviour. Planning and zoning decision-makers are required to carefully balance competing interests and are often afforded a level of discretion in their decisions. In light of rising land values and an often discretionary, complex and opaque process, it is acknowledged that the planning system can incentivise corruption.

Although there is a paucity of research into best practices in preventing corruption in planning and zoning at the local level, this paper identifies some best practices from research in the land-use sector and construction industry.


Krista Lee-Jones,


Roberto Kukutschka and Matthew Jenkins, Transparency International, [email protected]  


Roberto Kukutschka, Matthew Jenkins, Transparency International




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